Full text of the second edition of Artificial Intelligence: The action that an agent does at a particular time is a function of its inputs.
China brain Ned Block  argues against the functionalist proposal of multiple realizabilitywhere hardware implementation is irrelevant because only the functional level is important.
The "China brain" or "Chinese nation" thought experiment involves supposing that the entire nation of China systematically organizes itself to operate just like a brain, with each individual acting as a neuron. The tremendous difference in speed of operation of each unit is not addressed. According to functionalism, so long as the people are performing the proper functional roles, with the proper causal relations between inputs and outputs, the system will be a real mind, with Functionalism and its role in artificial intellgence states, consciousness, and so on.
However, Block argues, this is patently absurd, so there must be something wrong with the thesis of functionalism since it would allow this to be a legitimate description of a mind.
Some functionalists believe China would have qualia but that due to the size it is impossible to imagine China being conscious.
Therefore, if functionalism is true either qualia will exist across all hardware or will not exist at all but are illusory.
Chinese room The Chinese room argument by John Searle  is a direct attack on the claim that thought can be represented as a set of functions. The thought experiment asserts that it is possible to mimic intelligent action without any interpretation or understanding through the use of a purely functional system.
In short, Searle describes a person who only speaks English who is in a room with only Chinese symbols in baskets and a rule book in English for moving the symbols around. The person is then ordered by people outside of the room to follow the rule book for sending certain symbols out of the room when given certain symbols.
Further suppose that the people outside of the room are Chinese speakers and are communicating with the person inside via the Chinese symbols. According to Searle, it would be absurd to claim that the English speaker inside knows Chinese simply based on these syntactic processes.
This thought experiment attempts to show that systems which operate merely on syntactic processes inputs and outputs, based on algorithms cannot realize any semantics meaning or intentionality aboutness. Thus, Searle attacks the idea that thought can be equated with following a set of syntactic rules; that is, functionalism is an insufficient theory of the mind.
Of course, Searle responds that there is nothing more than syntax going on at the higher-level as well, so this reply is subject to the same initial problems.
Furthermore, Searle suggests the man in the room could simply memorize the rules and symbol relations. Again, though he would convincingly mimic communication, he would be aware only of the symbols and rules, not of the meaning behind them.
Inverted spectrum Another main criticism of functionalism is the inverted spectrum or inverted qualia scenario, most specifically proposed as an objection to functionalism by Ned Block.
Unlike normal people, Jane sees the color violet as yellow, orange as blue, and so forth. So, suppose, for example, that you and Jane are looking at the same orange.
While you perceive the fruit as colored orange, Jane sees it as colored blue. However, when asked what color the piece of fruit is, both you and Jane will report "orange".
In fact, one can see that all of your behavioral as well as functional relations to colors will be the same. Jane will, for example, properly obey traffic signs just as any other person would, even though this involves the color perception. Therefore, the argument goes, since there can be two people who are functionally identical, yet have different mental states differing in their qualitative or phenomenological aspectsfunctionalism is not robust enough to explain individual differences in qualia.
A silicon-based robot, for example, whose functional profile matched our own, would have to be fully conscious. His argument for this claim takes the form of a reductio ad absurdum. The general idea is that since it would be very unlikely for a conscious human being to experience a change in its qualia which it utterly fails to notice, mental content and functional profile appear to be inextricably bound together, at least in the human case.
A similar argument is applied to the notion of absent qualia. In this case, Chalmers argues that it would be very unlikely for a subject to experience a fading of his qualia which he fails to notice and respond to.
The problem with this argument, however, as Brian G. Crabb has observed, is that it begs the central question: And while changing or fading qualia in a conscious subject might force changes in its functional profile, this tells us nothing about the case of a permanently inverted or unconscious robot.
A subject with inverted qualia from birth would have nothing to notice or adjust to. Similarly, an unconscious functional simulacrum of ourselves a zombie would have no experiential changes to notice or adjust to.
A related critique of the inverted spectrum argument is that it assumes that mental states differing in their qualitative or phenomenological aspects can be independent of the functional relations in the brain. Thus, it begs the question of functional mental states: Functionalism says that mental states are produced by the functional relations in the brain.
This same type of problem—that there is no argument, just an antithetical assumption at their base—can also be said of both the Chinese room and the Chinese nation arguments. Twin Earth thought experiment The Twin Earth thought experimentintroduced by Hilary Putnam,  is responsible for one of the main arguments used against functionalism, although it was originally intended as an argument against semantic internalism.
The thought experiment is simple and runs as follows.Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in , and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding.
Artificial Intelligence. too. More particularly, the AI thesis should be understood to hold that thought, or intelligence, can be produced by artificial means; made, not grown. For brevity’s sake, we will take “machine” to denote just the artificial ones.
(based on John von Neumann’s role . Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence Kevin Connor O ne of the most potentially important and least successful projects in computing during the previous half-century has been human-level artificial intelligence.1 This project has been daunting not because we do not understand the.
Artificial Intelligence and its Application in Different Areas Avneet Pannu, M. Tech Student increasing role in the research of management science Artificial Intelligence techniques for protecting computer and communication networks from intruders.
Intrusion. The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and its role in society Official Microsoft Blog Learn about Microsoft’s approach to AI Download the book The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and its role in . Artificial Intelligence and its Application in Different Areas Avneet Pannu, M.
Tech Student increasing role in the research of management science Artificial Intelligence techniques for protecting computer and communication networks from intruders. Intrusion.